DEMAZON GLOBAL VENTURES is a registered and reliable marketing company based in Nigeria.
We desigh and print posters, brochures, flex banners, calendars, stickers, complimentary cards, jotters, excercise books, text books and other printable items.
INTERNET MARKETING SERVICES:
Online advertising/publicity, Website cretion, online evangelical services, creation of e-mail address, online publishing of academic articles.
No. 241 Zik’s Avenue, Off St. John Of God’s Junction, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.
Nwigbo's Compound in Ogene, Umunuko Ukpor, Nnewi South LGA, Anambra State, Nigeria.
Phone : (+234)08130470539
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
Couples who evaluate the health of their relationship regularly tend to thrive better than other couples who do not engage in this practice. Relationship discord or dissatisfaction does not happen on its own. There are specific things that occur throughout the relationship that lead to increased dissatisfaction over time. Generally, couples don’t have specific conversations about how things are going in the relationship. They overlook the need to discuss any important issues which could be a potential source of conflict later on. If they do, it tends to be later on when things are starting to be at their worst. And unfortunately, by then it may be too late to wipe out such sources of conflicts.
So what are some things that need to be done to keep satisfaction levels high and to maintain a happy and healthy marriage? Below are some tips for a healthy marriage-
1. Have meaningful conversations
It’s great to have conversations about the day to day events in your partner’s life, however, it’s good to get in the habit of having meaningful conversations about the relationship itself and how your partner feels about how things are going.
2. Confront issues early on
One of the keys to a healthy relationship is to express your concerns and your disappointments with your partner in a timely manner. Don’t allow unresolved conflicts to fester without appropriately expressing the way you feel. By expressing your feelings in a loving, honest and direct way, you allow you and your partner the opportunity to work together towards reconciliation.
3. Validate each other
Be sure to acknowledge your partner’s strengths and positive attributes. Be careful not to get too caught up in your everyday routine and responsibilities. Take a step back, take some time, and recognize your partner for their contributions to the relationship. Remind them why you love them, how special they are to you and what you value most about them. No one likes to feel unappreciated or unrecognized for their hard work.
4. Spend quality time together
Having a family can consume a lot of energy and time which makes it difficult to find balance in all your roles and responsibilities. A healthy marriage is where you make a good effort to reserve some of your energy for your partner. Make a good effort to reserve some of your energy for your partner. Your partner needs to feel and know that they matter to you and that they are still a priority for you. Let them know in your own special way that you enjoy being with them. Quality time deepens your intimacy, enhances communication and strengthens your bond.
5. Have fun
Life can be challenging, demanding, busy and I could keep going on and on about the difficulties it brings us sometimes. Despite this, or better yet in spite of this, it’s important to create the time and space in your relationship to have fun. Laughter is good for the soul and it’s free! Did I mention free? It doesn’t have to take much to achieve this. You can plan fun activities you both enjoy doing or just be spontaneous and create new adventures. Whatever you decide to, keep it simple and fun.
6. Show unconditional positive regard
This involves demonstrating complete acceptance and support of your partner no matter what they say or do. When you married your spouse, you vowed to love each other in sickness and health, in good and bad times. Show unconditional positive regard for your partner so they know that your love for them is not dependent on circumstances. This allows your partner to feel safe to share anything with you, even if they know you will not like it. Acceptance does not mean that you endorse or condone a behavior. You can dislike a person’s behavior but sill have unconditional positive regard for them. Only then can you experience the freedom of just being you as well as reaching deeper levels of intimacy in your marriage.
7. Talk about sex
Don’t just have sex but have conversations about it. Talk about patterns, likes, dislikes, desires, fantasies, etc. Couples who have discussions about intimate topics are more likely to be healthier, happier and last longer. It’s easy to fall into sexual patterns in a relationship so having conversations about it allows you to evaluate those patterns to determine if there is a need or desire for change. It may seem a bit ridiculous but planning for sex ensures that you make it a priority in your relationship which will make you more likely to make time for it. You may need to talk about how to fit sex into your busy schedules. While planning is important flexibility is also needed. Be flexible, seek out opportunities to keep the intimate part of your relationship exciting.
The health of your marriage depends on you and your partner. It depends on your level of commitment, the effort and the time you put into it. This isn’t to say that other factors have no influence on the marriage’s health, but if you have the right foundation you can overcome the challenges. What may seem trivial today can develop into a bigger issue later on. In order to have a healthy marriage, both the couples have to work hard on eliminating such conflicts and promoting a strong bond of love and trust between them.
Depression is very common in our society and being on a bad mood often is very annoying. Feel depressed? Here’s 10 simple ways of keeping depression away and staying on a good mood:
1. Get enough sleep – The chances of you being in a bad mood are going to increase if you do not get enough sleep because when you are in bed your brain is developing and resting and your body is repairing itself, so when you sleep for only a few hours you are going to be starting the day on the wrong foot and things can only get worse. Do try your best to get eight hours and you will find that the day becomes that bit easier than it otherwise could have been.
2. Exercise – Exercise can help your body to produce endorphins and this is a chemical that makes you feel happier as well as fitter. You are not required to go to the gym on a daily basis, but do try to at least do some walking even for just 15 minutes as this can be enough to help put you into a good mood.
3. Stay hydrated – This may sound like common sense, but you do need to make sure that you drink enough water during the day because being dehydrated will lead to you feeling grumpy and more lethargic than you would normally be. It is important to point out that you are best to drink normal water and not soda or anything else as they contain additives and chemicals that do nothing for you when it comes to improving your mood.
4. Keep a diary – It has been shown in different studies that keeping a diary and writing down your emotions is a fantastic way of stopping depression getting a hold of you. The idea behind this is that it is for your eyes only, so nobody is going to judge you on what you write and it can be a great way of getting things off your chest rather than letting it eat away at you.
5. Do not hide away – Even though this may be quite difficult, you do need to try to socialize with people on a daily basis even if this is for a short period of time. Try and avoid becoming a hermit as it then becomes harder to change your mood when you have nobody to talk to, so get out, talk to people, and you will feel better for it.
6. Eat fruit and vegetables – Fruit and vegetables are crammed full of nutrients and minerals that can help you when it comes to trying to beat depression. By eating them, we are giving our brain the nourishment it needs to function as best as it possibly can, but eat the wrong things such as too much sugar, then your mood will fluctuate as those sugar levels rise and fall.
7. Meditate – Meditation has been studied by a number of people and there is no doubt that it does help to settle your mind and improve your mood if you have been able to even just get 30 minutes of peace and quiet where you can be alone with your thoughts. If you do not feel like meditation, then prayer does work for people that are religious as the idea is just to get some comfort from it in order to lower those stress levels.
8. Get Vitamin D – Vitamin D, along with Omega-3, is known for helping the brain, but we are often quite guilty of never getting enough of it and this does then have a negative effect on how we feel. Do, therefore, consider using supplements to boost the levels and you should feel a difference, but only if you do this on a daily basis, so make it part of your ritual as you will benefit from doing so.
9. Be thankful for what you have instead of worry about what is missing – Quite often we can become depressed by thinking about things that are missing from our life, but in actual fact you should remind yourself of what you have several times a day and be thankful for every single thing. The idea with this is to try to get it into your mind that not everything is bad and that small good things do happen to you and all it takes is you to remind yourself in order to put a smile on your face.
10. Love – Finally, make sure that you love those people that you are closest to because we are guilty of thinking we are all alone when depressed and in actual fact this is very rarely the case. Talk to your loved ones each day even if this is just for five minutes at a time and love them with all of your heart because those emotions will help you to see that you are luckier than you thought.
Try these novel strategies and your risk of cancer could dwindle even more.
1. Filter your tap water
You'll reduce your exposure to known or suspected carcinogens and hormone-disrupting chemicals. A report from the President's Cancer Panel on how to reduce exposure to carcinogens suggests that home-filtered tap water is a safer bet than bottled water, whose quality often is not higher—and in some cases is worse—than that of municipal sources, according to a study by the Environmental Working Group. (Consumer Reports' top picks for faucet-mounted filters: Culligan, Pur Vertical, and the Brita OPFF-100.) Store water in stainless steel or glass to avoid chemical contaminants such as BPA that can leach from plastic bottles.
2. Stop topping your tank
So say the EPA and the President's Cancer Panel: Pumping one last squirt of gas into your car after the nozzle clicks off can spill fuel and foil the pump's vapor recovery system, designed to keep toxic chemicals such as cancer-causing benzene out of the air, where they can come in contact with your skin or get into your lungs.
3. Marinate meat first
Processed, charred, and well-done meats can contain cancer-causing heterocyclic amines, which form when meat is seared at high temperatures, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which get into food when it's charcoal broiled. "The recommendation to cut down on grilled meat has really solid scientific evidence behind it," says Cheryl Lyn Walker, PhD, a professor of carcinogenesis at the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. If you do grill, add rosemary and thyme to your favorite marinade and soak meat for at least an hour before cooking. The antioxidant-rich spices can cut HCAs by as much as 87%, according to research at Kansas State University.
4. Caffeinate every day
Java lovers who drank 5 or more cups of caffeinated coffee a day had a 40% decreased risk of brain cancer, compared with people who drank the least, in a 2010 British study. A 5-cup-a-day coffee habit reduces risks of oral and throat cancer almost as much. Researchers credit the caffeine: Decaf had no comparable effect. But coffee was a more potent protector against these cancers than tea, which the British researchers said also offered protection against brain cancer.
5. Water down your risk
Drinking plenty of water and other liquids may reduce the risk of bladder cancer by diluting the concentration of cancer-causing agents in urine and helping to flush them through the bladder faster. Drink at least 8 cups of liquid a day, suggests the American Cancer Society.
6. Load up on green greens
Next time you're choosing salad fixings, reach for the darkest varieties. The chlorophyll that gives them their color is loaded with magnesium, which some large studies have found lowers the risk of colon cancer in women. "Magnesium affects signaling in cells, and without the right amount, cells may do things like divide and replicate when they shouldn't," says Walker. Just 1/2 cup of cooked spinach provides 75 mg of magnesium, 20% of the daily value.
7. Snack on Brazil nuts
They're a stellar source of selenium, an antioxidant that lowers the risk of bladder cancer in women, according to research from Dartmouth Medical School. Other studies have found that people with high blood levels of selenium have lower rates of dying of lung cancer and colorectal cancer. Researchers think selenium not only protects cells from free radical damage but also may enhance immune function and suppress formation of blood vessels that nourish tumors.
8. Burn off your risk
Moderate exercise such as brisk walking 2 hours a week cuts risk of breast cancer 18%. Regular workouts may lower your risks by helping you burn fat, which otherwise produces its own estrogen, a known contributor to breast cancer.
9. Skip the dry cleaner
A solvent known as perc (short for perchloroethylene) that's used in traditional dry cleaning may cause liver and kidney cancers and leukemia, according to an EPA finding backed in early 2010 by the National Academies of Science. The main dangers are to workers who handle chemicals or treated clothes using older machines, although experts have not concluded that consumers are also at increased cancer risk. Less toxic alternatives: Hand-wash clothes with mild soap and air-dry them, spot cleaning if necessary with white vinegar.
10. Ask about breast density
Women whose mammograms have revealed breast density readings of 75% or more have a breast cancer risk 4 to 5 times higher than that of women with low density scores, according to recent research. One theory is that denser breasts result from higher levels of estrogen—making exercise particularly important (see #8). "Shrinking your body fat also changes growth factors, signaling proteins such as adipokines and hormones like insulin in ways that tend to turn off cancer-promoting processes in cells," Walker says.
11. Head off cell phone risks
Use your cell phone only for short calls or texts, or use a hands-free device that keeps the phone—and the radio frequency energy it emits—away from your head. The point is more to preempt any risk than to protect against a proven danger: Evidence that cell phones increase brain cancer risk is "neither consistent nor conclusive," says the President's Cancer Panel report. But a number of review studies suggest there's a link.
12. Block cancer with color
Choosing your outdoor outfit wisely may help protect against skin cancer, say Spanish scientists. In their research, blue and red fabrics offered significantly better protection against the sun's UV rays than white and yellow ones did. Don't forget to put on a hat: Though melanoma can appear anywhere on the body, it's more common in areas the sun hits, and researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have found that people with melanomas on the scalp or neck die at almost twice the rate of people with the cancer on other areas of the body.
13. Pick a doc with a past
Experience—lots of it—is critical when it comes to accurately reading mammograms. A study from the University of California, San Francisco, found that doctors with at least 25 years' experience were more accurate at interpreting images and less likely to give false positives. Ask about your radiologist's track record. If she is freshly minted or doesn't check a high volume of mammograms, get a second read from someone with more mileage.
14. Eat clean foods
The President's Cancer Panel recommends buying meat free of antibiotics and added hormones, which are suspected of causing endocrine problems, including cancer. The report also advises that you purchase produce grown without pesticides and wash conventionally grown food thoroughly to remove residues. (The foods with the most pesticides: celery, peaches, strawberries, apples, and blueberries. See the full list of dirtiest fruits and vegetables here.) "At least 40 known carcinogens are found in pesticides and we should absolutely try to reduce exposure," Sellers says.
15. Do a folic acid check
The B vitamin, essential for women who may become or are pregnant to prevent birth defects, is a double-edged sword when it comes to cancer risk. Consuming too much of the synthetic form (not folate, found in leafy green veggies, orange juice, and other foods) has been linked to increased colon cancer risk, as well as higher lung cancer and prostate cancer risks. Rethink your multivitamin, especially if you eat a lot of cereal and fortified foods. A CDC study discovered that half of supplement users who took supplements with more than 400 mcg of folic acid exceeded 1,000 mcg per day of folic acid. Most supplements pack 400 mcg. Individual supplements (of vitamin D and calcium, for instance) may be a smarter choice for most women who aren't thinking of having kids.
16. Up your calcium intake
Milk's main claim to fame may also help protect you from colon cancer. Those who took calcium faithfully for 4 years had a 36% reduction in the development of new precancerous colon polyps 5 years after the study had ended, revealed Dartmouth Medical School researchers. (They tracked 822 people who took either 1,200 mg of calcium every day or a placebo.) Though the study was not on milk itself, you can get the same amount of calcium in three 8-ounce glasses of fat-free milk, along with an 8-ounce serving of yogurt or a 2- to 3-ounce serving of low-fat cheese daily.
17. Commit to whole grains
You know whole wheat is better for you than white bread. Here's more proof why you should switch once and for all: If you eat a lot of things with a high glycemic load—a measurement of how quickly food raises your blood sugar—you may run a higher risk of colorectal cancer than women who eat low-glycemic-load foods, found a Harvard Medical School study involving 38,000 women. The problem eats are mostly white: white bread, pasta, potatoes, and sugary pastries. The low-glycemic-load stuff comes with fiber.
18. Pay attention to pain
If you're experiencing a bloated belly, pelvic pain, and an urgent need to urinate, see your doctor. These symptoms may signal ovarian cancer, particularly if they're severe and frequent. Women and physicians often ignore these symptoms, and that's the very reason that this disease can be deadly. When caught early, before cancer has spread outside the ovary, the relative 5-year survival rate for ovarian cancer is a jaw-dropping 90 to 95%.
19. Avoid unnecessary scans
CT scans are a great diagnostic tool, but they deliver much more radiation than x-rays and may be overused, says Barton Kamen, MD, PhD, chief medical officer for the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society. In fact, researchers suggest that one-third of CT scans could be unnecessary. High doses of radiation can trigger leukemia, so make sure scans are not repeated if you see multiple doctors, and ask if another test, such as an ultrasound or MRI, could substitute.
20. Drop 10 pounds
Being overweight or obese accounts for 20% of all cancer deaths among women and 14% among men, notes the American Cancer Society. (You're overweight if your body mass index is between 25 and 29.9; you're obese if it's 30 or more.) Plus, losing excess pounds reduces the body's production of female hormones, which may protect against breast cancer, endometrial cancer, and ovarian cancer. Even if you're not technically overweight, gaining just 10 pounds after the age of 30 increases your risk of developing breast, pancreatic, and cervical, among other cancers.
PSYCHOLOGICAL STRATEGIES TO REDUCE THE IMPACT OF RECESSION ON MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS
MUOKWUE, CHINYERE AGNES
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY,
NWAFOR ORIZU COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, NSUGBE
The aim of this study is to explore psychological strategies to reduce the impact of recession on mental health problems. Unemployment arising from recession was identified as being connected with health consequences. Tension is mounting everywhere as job cuts are on the increase, while many global corporate organizations are shutting down their operations and a few are declaring bankruptcy. Job loss and financial difficulties are associated with increased risk of mental illness and suicide in the general population. There was a growing body of evidence that unemployment can influence physical and mental health. Numerous psychological theories of unemployment were reviewed which try to explain the importance of work in overall psychological well-being of individuals. When recession and its accompanied increased unemployment extend over long periods of time, it affects negatively mental and physical health, psychological well-being and behaviour of individuals in the entire society. Likewise, the financial uncertainty also increases stress-related health concerns. Its consequences include anxiety, depression, suicide ideation, low self-esteem, learned helplessness, hopelessness, stress, tension, anger, hostility, phobia, eating problems, personality disorder, self harm just to mention but a few. Understanding better how recession influence health will allow the creation of public policy that benefits the population and interventions should also target on the unemployed. Therefore, this paper examines psychological strategies to reduce the impact of recession on mental health problems.
Key words: Psychological strategies, recession, mental health
It is obvious that majority of Nigerians have been factually living from hand to mouth, finding it actually hard to meet the numerous financial responsibilities. The Nigerian economy in recent times has moved out from bad to worse and this is revealed in the augmented rate of inflation (consumer price index) as prices of goods and commodities constantly sky rocket, global economic slowdown, rising unemployment, global fall in price of oil, fluctuating exchange rates, poor interest rates, negative changes in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), falling family incomes, and cutting back on essential necessities. Moreover, a lot of Nigerians have lost their jobs as a result of retrenchments and massive job cuts to keep companies hovering, which results in an increase in the rate of unemployment in the country. All these are indicators of recession in Nigeria not to mention the undulation effects on mental health of both children and adults in Nigeria.
A recession is defined as a period of negative economic growth for two consecutive quarters, as measured by a decline in GDP (National Bureau of Economic Research, 2010). Thus, a recession is when the economy declines significantly for at least more than a few months such that there is fall in real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), income, employment, manufacturing and retail sales. A recession is destructive because it is associated with widespread unemployment rates, financial difficulties, fall in consumer purchases, businesses going bankrupt as well as increased risk of mental illness, depression, self-harm and suicidal ideations.
Mental health is an indivisible fraction of public health and drastically affects countries and their human, social and economic wealth. According to WHO (2011), mental health is the psychological state of someone who is functioning at a satisfactory level of emotional and behavioural adjustment. Mental health is also the subjective feeling of good emotional and social well-being and the capability to cope with life challenges and changes. This is manifest in one’s ability to work and study to full potential, cope with day-to-day life stresses, be involved in community and live life in free and satisfying manner. On the other hand, mental health problem occurs when one persistently feels down, tense, anxious, angry, helpless and hopeless for long periods of time. Mental health problems can influence how one thinks, feels, behaves and the ability to function every day, whether at school, work or in relationships. Mental health problems include depression, anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder, phobia, schizophrenia, eating problems, bipolar disorder, personality disorder, suicidal ideation, self harm, and psychotic experiences.
Mental health problems affect individuals and society as a whole but the risk is higher among the poor, homeless, unemployed, persons with low education, victims of violence, migrants and refugees, indigenous populations, children and adolescents, abused women and the neglected elderly (WHO, 2011).
Economic recessions have been predictable to significantly affect the population’s psychological health and wellbeing, which pertains, in particular, to vulnerable groups of people (Modrek, Stuckler, McKee, Cullen & Basu, 2013). In countries that have been hardest hit by the latest recession, the living and working conditions have substantially worsened (Eurofound, 2013). Work became more uncertain and unemployment rates increased as a result of lose pace in global growth and resulting deterioration of the labour markets (Eurostat, 2013). Generally, according to the European Commission (2013), people are more fearful about losing their employment since competition for jobs is rising and finding work quickly is perceived as unlikely. It is estimated that labour markets will take time to improve even though there are prospects for economic recovery (Eurofound, 2013). Levels of poverty and social exclusion have worsened, mainly in groups that were already at risk (WHO, 2016). During this recession, more people have been reporting being at risk of being unable to cope with unexpected expenses and even facing difficulties with paying ordinary bills or buying food over the coming year (European Comission, 2013).
Two recent ecological studies conducted during the 2008 recession provide evidence of the beneficial effects of providing generous welfare benefits to people who are out of work. An analysis of US state-level suicide data showed that states providing more generous unemployment benefits experienced lower recession related rises in suicide than those providing less generous welfare support (Cylus, Glymour & Avendano, 2014). In an ecological analysis of data from 30 countries, there was a graded association between a country’s spending on unemployment protection and the effect of unemployment rises on suicide (Norström & Grönqvist, 2014).
Recession and mental health
No doubt, recession has given rise to pressures, threats and realism of losing jobs as well as purchasing ability of several Nigerians being lowered. The periods of recession however, may lead to stress, anxiety, feelings of hopelessness, helplessness, mental illnesses, instability, depression, suicide and increase in alcohol and drug abuse in order to cope with the stress as well as their antecedent psychological consequences irrespective of age, gender or social status. Supporting the above, researches (Stuckler, Basu, Suhrcke, Coutts & McKee, 2009; Katikireddi, Niedzwiedz & Popham, 2012; Chang, Stuckler, Yip & Gunnell, 2013; Corcoran, Grifflin, Arensman, Fitzgerald & Perry, 2015) have shown that during times of economic recession, the number of people affected by these and other problems rise and levels of depression, self-harm and suicide increase. Some people may be at higher risk of mental disorders due to adverse economic, environmental and social state of affairs as seen in Nigeria as this recession coagulates.
Recent research into suicides occurring during a period of recession indicated that those whose suicide appeared to be related to consequences of recession were largely still in work, cohabiting, with financial dependents but had no contact with secondary-care psychiatric and little recent contact with primary-care services (Coope, Donovan, Wilson, Barnes, Metcalfe, Hollingworth, Kapur, Hawton, & Gunnell, 2015).
Also, World Health Organization (2016) rightly stated that poverty is the leading factor associated with mental health. Poverty goes hand in hand with unemployment/underemployment, harsh living conditions, hopelessness, increased stress levels which inadvertently leads some people to increased use of psychoactive substances as a maladaptive coping mechanism and an increase in violence. All these factors will lead to an increase in the prevalence of mental disorders, especially depression, suicidal behaviour and psychoactive substance abuse as well. The situation obviously will lead a lot of people living in Nigeria to live with mental illnesses and suicidal behaviour and is likely to get worse given the prevailing situation.
Recession, Mental Health and Unemployment
During periods of recession, an economy normally experiences a reasonably high unemployment rate. More specifically, recession has brought in its wake enormous increase in the level of unemployment. This was revealed by Central Bank of Nigeria as reported by Akintoye (2003) that the national unemployment rate raised from 4.3% in 1970 to 6.4% in 1980. According to International Labour Organization (2010) report, more than 200 million people globally or 6% of the world’s workforce were without a job in 2002. Unemployment is the state and degree of joblessness, idleness, lower income, and feeling of worthlessness which leads to poverty within an economy. Unemployment is an enduring stress and frustrating situation that necessitates the person affected to acclimatize. According to Kapuvári (2010), unemployment is a prolonged stress-generated factor which results not only in mental problems but also in psychosomatic diseases. According to Székely (2003), unemployment generates many psychological consequences such as low self-esteem, social stigma, change of self and identity, deterioration of family relationships, increase in divorce, material effects, changes in the daily routine, addictions, mental health problems such as high blood pressure, increase in suicide, lack of interest, deterioration of physical health, increase in alcohol consumption, heavy smoking to mention but a few. It also affects social living and political activities. Among the psychological effects of unemployment, depression and anxiety are important (Winefield & Tiggermann, 1990).
There are many personality factors which influence the lives of the unemployed. Schaufeli and Yperen (1992) rightly stated that, positive self-esteem helps the lives of the unemployed. Concerning the ego defense system, people with more mature defense mechanisms are less likely to become unemployed (Vaillant, 1995). Unemployed people with low self-esteem are more responsive in accepting any work opportunities and as such, have more chances of finding a job.
Unemployment can be perceived as a stressor (external stimulus that triggers stress to an organism which takes place as people adjust physically and psychologically to their physical environment) and psychosocial crisis (traumatic and stressful tweaking in the life of an individual). Unemployment poses a huge change and challenge to a person and prevents that psychosocial balance or state necessary for survival. Balance implies ability of an individual to integrate into society by having work and suitable adaptation strategies. Thus, any unexpected incident, like loss of job, can have a harmful effect on the previously formed balance. This can be explained by the fact that the person sustaining the loss would like to use his/her adaptation skills but there is nothing to adapt to. These conditions lead to the development of a psychosocial crisis. Suppose individuals have healthy earlier development which enabled them to learn the basic adaptation strategies, they would solve this problem and control this new situation involving a temporary social blankness. However, the crisis will be more serious if their earlier development was challenging.
Numerous theories are used to explain unemployment. It’s important to take a cursory look at them.
Psychological theories of unemployment
A lot of psychological theories relates to unemployment. Moore, Kapur, Hawton, Richards, Metcalfe, and Gunnel (2017) summarized them as follows:
Stages theory 1
The psychological response to unemployment according to Eisenberg and Lazarsfeld (1938) could be explained in terms of the following discrete stages:–– At first there is a shock, which is followed by an active hunt for a job, during which the individual is still optimistic and still maintains an unbroken attitude.
–– Secondly, when all efforts fail, the individual becomes pessimistic, anxious, and suffers active distress; this is the most crucial stage of all.
–– Finally, the individual becomes fatalistic and adapts to the new state but with a narrower scope and now with a broken attitude.
Stages theory 2
According to Arnetz et al. (1987), an unemployed person experiences different emotions in the different stages of unemployment. Stage 1is accompanied by danger of job loss; stage 2 is associated with the job loss itself; stage 3 is known as ‘honeymoon’ that is the first six months of the unemployment period without financial problems; stage 4 is the period of a difficult financial situation; stage 5 is called permanent unemployment period without hope of finding a job. In stage 1 and 2, the psychological and psycho-physiological stress level is very high, but the financial situation is not a problem yet. The social support is appropriate, and the unemployed person chooses rational coping strategies. The anxiety level is elevated in the period of the first stage, that is, danger of job loss. The person foresees the difficult financial condition, which stimulates maladaptive psycho-physiological responses, psycho-pathological reactions, depression or other harmful behaviours. At the moment, problems of the circulatory system and immune system are predicted. As for ego defense mechanisms, some people think and reason magically, archaically, and try to interpret incidents according to some higher power, such as God. Some do not have the courage to confront their unemployment situation; hence, they do not feel this phenomenon so deeply. Some may however describe this brief reactive psychosis as a consequence of unemployment. In addition to the growing serum cortisol level, the unemployed person can be characterised by weaker immune competence (Lázár 2006). In the third stage of unemployment, the person does not have any financial problems, the first shock disappears, and spiritual life is in harmony. This is a period without stress in which the person is characterized by physiological, social and mental balance. In the fourth stage, health deteriorates and stress levels are higher because of the poor financial situation of the unemployed person. Lack of self evaluation, behaviour problems and social isolation are important at this stage, which result in a poor quality of life. The last period of unemployment can be characterized by immune-suppressive phenomena (Lázár, 2006).
According to this theory, frustration always leads to aggression and reactions to job loss can be explained by the frustration-aggression theory (Catalano, Dooley, Novaco, Wilson & Hough, 1993). Maladaptive behaviour patterns can emerge if an individual is not socialized properly. Therefore, conducive social environment and social support are important agents for personality development.
Life-span developmental theory
Erikson (1959) proposed eight stages, each with associated conflicts that need resolution for healthy psychosocial development. In relation to adolescence, some researchers have reported evidence suggesting that youth unemployment sets back healthy psychological development, as predicted by the theory as it prevents the acquisition of occupational identity (Gurney 1980).
This theory is based on Freud’s view that work represents our strongest link to reality. Jahoda (1982) applied it and proposed a theory that distinguishes between the manifest benefits of employment (earning a living) and the assumed latent benefits that serve to maintain links with reality. She identifies five latent benefits: time structure, social contacts, external goals, status and identity, enforced activity. Marienthal research of Jahoda and Lazarsfeld proved this theory (Bánfalvy 2003).
Agency restriction theory
The theory assumes that people are agents who strive to assert themselves, initiate and influence events and are intrinsically motivated. According to the agency restriction theory, the negative consequences of unemployment arise because they inhibit the exercise of personal agency (Fryer & Payne 1984). In short, agency theory assumes that people are fundamentally proactive and independent, whereas deprivation theory, by contrast, assumes them to be fundamentally reactive and dependent.
The vitamin model
This model assumes that nine features of the environment (opportunity for control, opportunity for skill use, externally generated goals, variety, environmental clarity, availability of money, physical security, opportunity for interpersonal contact, and valued social position) affect mental health in an analogous manner to the way vitamins affect physical health (Warr 1987).
Cognitive and emotional responses to unemployment its psychological implications
Evaluation of unemployment depends on the educational level of the unemployed person, self evaluation, and some contextual elements like gender, social support, age, income and employment status (Béland et al. 2002). Worry, fear, hostility, aggression, sorrow, depression, loneliness are among the emotional responses to unemployment. Sometimes the above factors have a special order. For instance, worry and fear appear mainly around job loss. These emotions can turn to anger if the unemployed person does not find a job. Hostility means that the employed person thinks unemployment is not his/her fault and the person blames another person. If the stress is permanent, the implication is that, the negative feelings turn inward and feelings of helplessness or low self esteem can appear. Further stress can lead to depression and loneliness. Unemployed people experience trifling activity levels and many feel withdrawn. Psychological strategies of tackling recession-induced mental problems to avoid deaths
Interventions to help mitigate the effect of unemployment on mental health are important and requires course of action in this period of recession.
Preventive interventions should gear towards reducing mental problems like depression, conduct disorders and feelings of hopelessness, aggression and delinquent behaviours, just to mention a few.
Nigerians should become more conscious of their personal stressors and learn to address them in healthier ways. They should also find humour in almost every situation in order to combat recession induced mental problems. Nourish one’s social life by connecting to peer support or other people to feel valued and confident about one or join groups like a book club or local community group to meet new people.
Psychosocial and behavioural interventions such as cognitive-behavioural therapy and family-based group intervention for “high risk” children and adults should be encouraged. This can be achieved through avoiding risky sexual practices, proper diet, getting enough sleep, adequate exercise, secure attachment, keeping physically active, meditation, perceived control over life outcomes, a sense of purpose, direction, social integration and optimistic outlook on life to avoid burn out.
Individuals should adopt talking treatments to provide a regular time and space to talk about personal thoughts and experiences and explore difficult feelings with a trained professional. This helps them deal with specific problem, improve on relationships, dvelop more helpful ways of living day-to-day and cope with upsetting memories or experiences.
Individuals should be encouraged to reorganize their lives with cognizance to the existing recession by cutting expenses, reducing unnecessary expenses but making sure also to look after one’s physical health.
People should be knowledgeable to take care of their emotional health, smile, freshen, use their social networks, ask for help but if all else fails, consult an expert or psychologist or nearest mental health professional. Emotionally rewarding social relationships and expression of positive emotions should be encouraged.
Through mass campaigns, Nigerians should totally stop the use of psychoactive substances such as excessive alcohol, cigarettes, tobacco and drug use because though they give temporary relief, they have more adverse effects than good. Alcohol warning labels should also be encouraged.
Government should support the citizenry through social welfare and other policy measures to help people keep an optimal mental health, support families that are struggling, retain their jobs and communicate to people on efforts being made to topple recession.
There should be government spending on active labour market programmes and unemployment protection schemes to counter the effects of recession on the populace.
There should be training for teachers and parents on stress management and to also detect mental health problems and facilitate appropriate interventions.
Government should provide interventions in schools to improve life skills, pro-social behaviour, scholastic performance, self-esteem, include a life-skills curriculum and overall climatic conditions conducive for effective learning.
Adequate counseling should be encouraged in schools to prevent aggressive behaviours, depression, anxiety, suicidal ideations and substance abuse among students so as to help them cope better.
Government should provide community mental health teams to support people with mental health problems living in the community. A psychologist, counsellor, social worker, occupational therapist, community psychiatric nurse and community support worker should make up the team while a member will be appointed as care coordinator, to care and keep in regular contact.
Loss of job and financial difficulties are associated with increased risk of mental illness and suicide in the general population. Interventions targeting the unemployed might help reduce these effects.References
Akintoye, I. R. (2003).
Reducing unemployment through the informal sector: A case study of
Nigeria. European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences, 3(1),40-58.
Bánfalvy, Cs. (2003). A munkanélküliség szociálpszichológiájáról. Budapest: Akadémiai.
Béland, F., Birch, S.
& Stoddart, G. (2002). ‘Unemployment and Health: Contextual Level
Influences on the Production of Health in Populations’. Social Science & Medicine, 55,
Chang, S-S., Stuckler,
D., Yip, P. & Gunnell, D. (2013). Impact of 2008 global economic crisis
on suicide: time trend study in 54 countries. British Medical Journal 2013;347:f5239.
Coope, C., Donovan, J.,
Wilson, C., Barnes, M., Metcalfe, C., Hollingworth, W., Kapur, N.,
Hawton, K. & Gunnell, D. (2015). Characteristics of people dying by suicide after job loss,
financial difficulties and other economic stressors during a period of recession (2010–
2011): a review of coroners’ records. Journal of Affective Disorders, 183, 98–105.
Corcoran P, Griffin E,
Arensman E, Fitzgerald AP, Perry IJ (2015). Impact of the economic
recession and subsequent austerity on suicide and self-harm in Ireland: an interrupted time
series analysis. International Journal of Epidemiology 10.1093/ije/dyv058. pp. 969–977.
Cylus, J., Glymour, M. M.
& Avendano, M. (2014). Do generous unemployment benefit
programs reduce suicide rates? A state fixed-effect analysis covering 1968–2008. American
Journal of Epidemiology, 180, 45–52.
Eurofound (2013). Eurofound year book 2012: living and working in Europe. Dublin: Ireland.
(2013) European Comission. Flash Eurobarometer 338 - monitoring the
social impact of the crisis: public perceptions in the European Union (WAVE 6). GESIS
Data Archive: Cologne. 2013 Report No.:ZA5773. doi:10.4232/1.11582
Unemployment rate, monthly average, by sex and age groups (%). In: une_rt_m,
ed.: Eurostat,. Available from:
Organization (2010). World Employment. www.ilo.org/public/english
Kapuvári, V. (2010).
Psychological effects of economic recession and unemployment. European
Journal of Mental Health, (6), 83–93.
Niedzwiedz, C. L., Popham, F. (2012). Trends in population mental health
before and after the 2008 recession: a repeat cross-sectional analysis of the 1991–2010
Health Surveys of England. British Medical Journal Open 2 bmjopen-2012–001790.
Lázár, G. (2006).
Psychological impact of unemployment-evidence from the literature.
Integrative Business Research, 4 (3), 47-53.
Modrek, S., Stuckler,
D., McKee, M., Cullen, MR. & Basu, S. (2013). A review of health
consequences of recessions internationally and a synthesis of the US response during the
great recession. Public Health Review, 35, 1.
Moore, T. H. M., Kapur,
N., Hawton, K., Richards, A., Metcalfe, C., & Gunnel, D. (2017).
Interventions to reduce the impact of unemployment and economic hardship on mental
health in the general population: a systematic review. Psychological Medicine, 47, 1062–1084.
Moore, T., Gunnell, D.,
Metcalfe, C., Kapur, N. & Hawton, K. (2015). Effects of interventions to
ameliorate the impact of unemployment and economic hardship on mental health in the
general population. PROSPERO Database. CRD42015019822.
National Bureau of
Economic Research ( 2010). NBER's Business Cycle Dating Committee." 20
Sept. 2010. Web. 16 Dec. 2014.
Norström, T. &
Grönqvist, H. (2014). The great Recession, unemployment and suicide. Journal
of Epidemiology and Community Health, 69, 110–116.
Schaufeli, W. B. &
Yperen, Van N. W. (1992). ‘Unemployment and Psychological Distress
among Graduates: A Longitudinal Study’. Journal of Occupational and Organizational
Psychology, 65, 291–305.
Stuckler, D., Basu, S.,
Suhrcke, M., Coutts, A. & McKee, M. (2009). The public health effect of
economic crises and alternative policy responses in Europe: an empirical analysis. Lancet
Székely, V. (2003). ‘A
munkanélküliség lélektana’ in Gy. Hunyady & M. Székely, eds.,
Gazdaságpszichológia. Budapest: Osiris, 643–68.
Vaillant, G. E. (1995). Adaptation to Life. Cambridge: Harvard UP.
WHO (2011). Impact of Economic Crises on Mental Health. Copenhagen, Denmark.
WHO (2016). Age-Standardized Suicide Rates (per 100 000
population). WHO: Geneva,
Switzerland (http://www.who. int/gho/mental_health/suicide_
Winefield, A. H. &
Tiggermann, M. (1990). ‘Employment Status and Psychological Well-Being:
A Longitudinal Study’, Journal of Applied Psychology 75, 455–59.
Alcohol has always been used for celebratory purposes for many, many years. However, the consumption of alcohol carries a risk of detrimental health and social repercussions related to its intoxicating, toxic and addictive properties. Excessive and chronic alcohol use has been associated with damage to major organs, some cancers, and is a leading cause of death in industrialized countries. Excessive drinking is defined as consuming an average of more than two drinks per day for men and more than one drink per day for women.
Chronic and excessive use of alcohol is associated with impaired cognitive development and alterations in the anatomy of the brain. Structurally, increased alcohol consumption has contributed to the occurrence of brain lesions and a reduction in brain mass. These changes can cause:
Alcohol consumption can also alter one's brain chemistry; in particular it increases the release of serotonin, which helps regulate emotional expression and endorphins, which enhance feelings of relaxation and euphoria.
Researchers believe that changes in chemicals released by the brain may contribute to:
Liver damage is one of the most prevalent and adverse effects associated with chronic alcohol use. Excessive drinking contributes to detrimental changes in the liver over time, often starting with the accumulation of fat in the liver (fatty liver). This build-up of fat in some cases may lead to inflammation or alcoholic hepatitis. For some, alcoholic hepatitis does not present obvious symptoms. For others, however, alcoholic hepatitis can cause a variety of symptoms including:
As it increases in severity, alcoholic hepatitis enlarges the liver causing jaundice, excessive bleeding, and clotting difficulties.
Fibrosis is also associated with heavy drinking and causes scar tissue to accumulate in the liver. Alcohol alters the chemicals in the liver needed to break down and remove this scar tissue, and as a result, liver function diminishes. If you continue to drink, this excessive scar tissue builds up and creates a condition called cirrhosis, which is a slow deterioration of the liver. Cirrhosis prevents the liver from performing its primary functions, including managing infections, detoxification of the body, and absorbing nutrients.
Increased alcohol intake for a significant period of time can also damage the heart. It can cause alcoholic cardiomyopathy, a weakening of the heart muscle that interferes with its ability to pump an adequate amount of blood to peripheral organs. For some, this reduced blood flow may result in severe damage to organs and tissues.
Cardiomyopathy can also cause such symptoms as:
Moreover, binge drinking or chronic drinking can also affect the rhythm and regularity of your heartbeat. Alcohol interferes with the heart's natural pacemaker causing arrhythmias, a condition in which the heart beats too rapidly or irregularly.
Another major organ affected by increased alcohol intake is the pancreas. Alcohol interferes with the ability of the pancreas to secrete digestive enzymes to the small intestine, resulting in a build-up of these enzymes. These enzymes and acetaldehyde (a substance produced by metabolically breaking down alcohol in the body) cause pancreatitis, which is the inflammation of the pancreas.
Acute pancreatitis is a sudden attack of inflammation and presents itself with abdominal pain, fever, diarrhea and rapid heart rate. Chronic pancreatitis (persistent inflammation) causes these symptoms as well as severe abdominal pain, significant impairment of pancreas function, and in some cases diabetes.
Heavy drinking has also been identified as a risk factor for some cancers including mouth, esophageal, liver, and breast cancer. Excessive and chronic drinking (drinking five or more drinks per day) can also enhance your risk of developing colon or rectal cancer. The World Cancer Research Fund reports that women who drink five standard alcohol drinks each day have approximately 1.2 times the risk of developing colon or rectal cancer than women who do not drink.
Excessive and sustained alcohol use can result in a multitude of detrimental health consequences that may eventually lead to death. Decreasing alcohol intake or abstaining from it altogether may ameliorate or in some cases reverse sustained organ damage or cognitive difficulties. When drinking alcohol, moderation is key. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans define moderate drinking as- up to one drink a day for women or two drinks a day for men. So at the next wedding go ahead and raise your glass, just keep it to one glass for the night.