The Harmful Effects Of Smoking On The Body.
Central nervous system
One of the ingredients in tobacco is a mood-altering drug called
nicotine. Nicotine reaches your brain in mere seconds and makes you feel
more energized for a while. But as that effect wears off, you feel
tired and crave more. Nicotine is extremely habit-forming, which is why
people find smoking so difficult to quit.
Physical withdrawal from nicotine can impair your cognitive functioning and make you feel anxious, irritated, and depressed. Withdrawal can also cause headaches and sleep problems.
When you inhale smoke, you’re taking in substances that can damage
your lungs. Over time, this damage leads to a variety of problems.
Along with increased infections, people who smoke are at higher risk for
chronic nonreversible lung conditions such as:
Withdrawal from tobacco products can cause temporary congestion
and respiratory discomfort as your lungs and airways begin to heal.
Increased mucus production right after quitting smoking is a positive
sign that your respiratory system is recovering.
Children whose parents smoke are more prone to coughing, wheezing,
and asthma attacks than children whose parents don’t. They also tend to
have higher rates of pneumonia and bronchitis.
- emphysema, the destruction of the air sacs in your lungs
- chronic bronchitis, permanent inflammation that affects the lining of the breathing tubes of the lungs
- chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a group of lung diseases
- lung cancer
Smoking damages your entire cardiovascular system. Nicotine causes
blood vessels to tighten, which restricts the flow of blood. Over time,
the ongoing narrowing, along with damage to the blood vessels, can
cause peripheral artery disease.
Smoking also raises blood pressure, weakens blood vessel walls,
and increases blood clots. Together, this raises your risk of stroke.
You’re also at an increased risk of worsening heart disease if you’ve already had heart bypass surgery, a heart attack, or a stent placed in a blood vessel.
Smoking not only impacts your cardiovascular health, but also the
health of those around you who don’t smoke. Exposure to secondhand smoke
carries the same risk to a nonsmoker as someone who does smoke. Risks
include stroke, heart attack, and heart disease.
Integumentary system (skin, hair, and nails)
The more obvious signs of smoking involve skin changes. Substances
in tobacco smoke actually change the structure of your skin. A recent
study has shown that smoking dramatically increases the risk of squamous cell carcinoma(skin cancer).
Your fingernails and toenails aren’t immune from the effects of
smoking. Smoking increases the likelihood of fungal nail infections.
Hair is also affected by nicotine. An older study found it increases hair loss, balding, and graying.
Smoking increases the risk of mouth, throat, larynx, and esophagus
cancer. Smokers also have higher rates of pancreatic cancer. Even
people who “smoke but don’t inhale” face an increased risk of mouth
Smoking also has an effect on insulin, making it more likely that
you’ll develop insulin resistance. That puts you at increased risk of type 2 diabetes and its complications, which tend to develop at a faster rate than in people who don’t smoke.
Sexuality and reproductive system
Nicotine affects blood flow to the genital areas of both men and
women. For men, this can decrease sexual performance. For women, this
can result in sexual dissatisfaction by decreasing lubrication and the
ability to reach orgasm. Smoking may also lower sex hormone levels in
both men and women. This can possibly lead to decreased sexual desire.
Quitting smoking is difficult, but your doctor can help you make a
plan. Ask them for advice. There are a variety of nonprescription and
prescription medications that can help you quit. You can also turn to
our smoking cessation resource center,
which has advice, stories from others, and more. There are both short
and long-term benefits to quitting smoking. Since smoking affects every
body system, finding a way to quit is the most important step you can
take to living a longer and happier life.